are bronchial infections contagious - Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects
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Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side Effects

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.


First Generation. The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance.


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 If your doctor determines that you have asthma, or that your chronic condition is likely to develop asthma, then he or she may recommend additional treatment for your condition. Those that are diagnosised with asthma will need an inhaler and sometimes additional asthma medications.

The Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis Handbook were penned by Sheila Sperber Haas and Francois Haas. Both writers are scientists also they are compassionate people.

Abhishek is an ex-bronchitis sufferer and he has got some great tips for Bronchitis Treatment! Download his FREE 100 Pages Ebook, "How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis" from his website http://www.Health-Whiz.com/797/index.htm. Only limited Free Copies available.

One thing that your doctor's will determine is if there is something else wrong that could possibly be causing your bronchitis in the first place. Some will have additional conditions like asthma that can lead to this problem. But, when there are no underlying causes, bronchitis can be labelled as the cause of your illness and then treated as such.

Though among children bronchitis is certainly not a chronic ailment, the parents and/or caregivers must essentially acquire the knowledge on the disease. This way they would be able to help their child better while the child suffers a bronchitis attack.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

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Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

Living with COPD might be overwhelming and very exhausting. Patients and their caretakers might continuously live in fear running out of air, their abilities dwindle prematurely, and they struggle in fragility.

- Some physicians find this handbook as a useful tool. It's because COPD is discussed in normal English. In fact, the sufferers might easily learn and get the facts about the disorder. This is correct for COPD dummies.

2. The largest risk factor in patients that get COPD is that of smoking. 80 to 90 percent of those that suffer from this condition will be smokers. 90 percent of them will die from it because they smoked.

Chronic bronchitis is often caused by smoking, but its not the only time that you can get it. You can also get chronic bronchitis from air pollution that is severe or toxic gasses that are in the area in which you work.

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing.

Acute Bronchitis 1. This type of bronchitis is the most common one for the winter season, especially among children. 2. The viruses attack the child's lining of bronchial tree that leads to infection. The swelling heightens as the child's body combats with the attack of the viruses.

If you are experiencing wheezing and coughing, then it is likely you have acute bronchitis. You can tell by listening to your breathing, can you hear a wheezing sound every time you take a breath. Your bronchial tubes may be constricted which is causing the wheezing and coughing. Just make sure you take lots of fluids and rest, the disorder will usually clear up within a few days.

11. Some times the medical practitioners recommend some asthma related medications for the child. These medications help the child release the mucus jammed inside the child's bronchi tubes. Usually with these medications an inhaler is also prescribed.

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

5. Therefore, the ailment of acute bronchitis is most oft acquired by the air the child breathes. 6. The symptoms & signs of acute bronchitis among children are:

Bronchitis is of two types - acute & chronic. Acute bronchitis or the short term bronchitis is perhaps the most common among bronchial ailments. Chronic bronchitis usually appears among the adults. The ones who smoke heavily and/or are prone to inhaling the chemical substances have quite many chances to catch chronic bronchitis.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan).

8. In case you notice the symptoms given above in the children, the experts say, it is high time that you should take the child to the physician. Initially the doctor does a physical examination and refers to the child's medical history to conclude whether he is suffering with the said ailment or not.

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety

Some people who're close with folk with emphysema and bronchitis are usually angry, frightened and depressed. However, doctors treat their COPD patients, the best way they can. But the fact is that many doctors focus on medical aspects of treatment COPD better than giving rehabilitations.

4. Bronchitis must not be taken lightly as this ailment can also lead to other severe conditions like pneumonia. Whenever your child experiences cough or cold, rather than thinking it to be a simple phase take it seriously and consider a visit to your physician as it might get dangerous for the child leading to bronchitis!

This book is the bestseller as it guides patients who are suffering from bronchitis and emphysema. Thus, expansion and revision were done to give the latest information. These disorders are discussed in such a way so that patients may easily understand. Nice care of emphysema and bronchitis are posted too. Through this kind of handbook, patients might restore their vitality and enhance the relationship with other people.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin.

When you have a bronchitis bout, your bronchial tubes become inflamed and swollen. Each time that this happens, the lining of those tubes becomes scarred. Over time, the more irritation that happens the more excessive mucus production will become. Your tubes lining will become thickened because of the scarring.

Gastrointestinal effects. The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

 
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Here are some facts you should know about chronic bronchitis. 1. COPD claims some 122,000 deaths each year in the US, as claimed by a study done in 2003. It is one of the leading causes of death.

iii. Lung Tests iv. Pulse Oximetry v. Sputum cultures 10. To cure the acute bronchitis among children the key word is taking rest. You must ensure that the child takes a good & well balanced meal. Also, drinking loads of non-caffeinated fluids is very helpful. Another key tip to cure this ailment is maintaining the in the surroundings of the child. You can do this by placing room humidifiers or keeping wet towels in several places in the house.

9. To verify the ailment developing in the child, the following tests are referred to by the medical practitioners: i. Blood tests ii. X-ray of the chest

Those that suffer from chronic bronchitis start by having an inflammation of their bronchial tubes. These are your air passageways, remember and therefore are very important to be clear so that air can move easily in and out of them allowing you to breathe.

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When you have a bronchitis bout, your bronchial tubes become inflamed and swollen. Each time that this happens, the lining of those tubes becomes scarred. Over time, the more irritation that happens the more excessive mucus production will become. Your tubes lining will become thickened because of the scarring.

Tips are given on getting the best physician. The treatment options that are very much important to people are discussed thoroughly. You would never worry about the HMO's as the guidelines on dealing them are provided too. Companies which provide supplemental oxygen are enlisted. Even very new techniques for surgery are posted for giving the patients nice options on ways of technological advances which can help to treat their disorders.

14. Along side, antihistamines must also be prevented as these can worsen the cough of the child. 15. In order to avoid recurring acute bronchitis for the child, you must ensure that the child washes his hands well regularly.

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications.

- Some have given the testimonials showing how this handbook helps them very much. One reviewer told that the respiratory exercises got in this particular handbook helped his father who had serious emphysema. His father's heart fails due to function such that the doctors let him to breathe through oxygen tank to keep the heart from fibulation. However after doing such exercises, his condition becomes better till oxygen isn't needed anymore.

These products have the goal of reducing the amount of inflammation in your air passageways as well as open them up to allow for better passage to your lungs. This type of medication can be vitally important to those suffering from asthma.

3. Female smokers are more likely to get COPD than men are. 4. If you are a victim of air pollution, second hand smoke, or have a history of infections of the respiratory system, you have an increased risk of getting COPD.

2. This usually initiates with a continuous irritation in the bronchial tubes. 3. Among children, acute bronchitis is rather common as compared to the chronic type of the ailment. The studies prove that chronic bronchitis hits the children usually when the symptoms of acute bronchitis are not treated well and in time.

However, before purchasing it, it's better to have a look at some consumer reviews. By this way, you would have an idea about how effective and useful it is.

Those that suffer from chronic symptoms of bronchitis often develop asthma because of it. This is caused by the long term inflammation of your air passageways. In any case, it is essential that you get help from your doctor in dealing with your condition. Those that are suffering from chronic bronchitis have a very serious illness to consider.

- A licensed psychotherapist read the entire book and hasn't recommended it. Some contents linked with facing the depression and anxiety might damage these patients psychologically.

3. As the swelling increases, more & more mucus is produced in the body. 4. The child is most likely to develop acute bronchitis in case the causative virus of the ailment is inhaled in the air that they breathe or it can get passed over from a person coughing.

First of all, the parents and/or caregivers can calm down as the medical findings have proved that bronchitis among children is not a chronic ailment.

'Is There A Treatment For Chronic Bronchitis' this question is nagging you when there is uncertainty and doubt. For some individuals, bronchitis happens often. This is what is called chronic bronchitis. In these individuals, the bronchitis may not go away, but may lessen in its severity. When this happens, individuals need to be aware of it and seek the help that's needed as soon as possible.

- Those who're more than 55 years old might feel that hopes are away from them. This handbook has failed to arouse them for leading worthy lives. Instead they're suggesting to study "courage books" having stories of dignity, hope and, capability to cope.

Third Generation. The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.

12. To relieve the child's fever and the feeling of discomfort, analgesics are also a part of the prescription. 13. The parents and/or caregivers must note that hey should not give aspirin to the child who is suffering with bronchitis. This can lead to devastating results and other ailments like Reye's syndrome.

From looking at your test results and listening to your lungs, your doctor will determine the right type of treatment for your condition. Usually in cases of acute conditions, this treatment is simply rest and fluids.

- Some find this very repulsive. It has frightening and grim illustrations. Hence the wicked line sketches of "pink puffer" and "blue bloater" looks like depicting the dark ages regarding the hell. People having COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) never deny the fact that they're going to die younger than the cohorts.

In the disease of bronchitis, the air passages amidst the child's lungs & nose swell up owing to the viral infection. This affects the child's bronchi. Bronchi refer to the tubes where in the air passes through in to & out of the child's lungs. Many a times, the tracheas & windpipe are also affected by this inflammation.

Side effects The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.



Abhishek is an ex-bronchitis sufferer and he has got some great tips for Bronchitis Treatment! Download his FREE 100 Pages Ebook, "How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis" from his website http://www.Health-Whiz.com/797/index.htm. Only limited Free Copies available.


 
 
     
 
 





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Acute bronchitis usually develops on the heels of a cold or the flu. Your body s battle to defeat these infections leaves your bronchial tubes sensitive, irritated, and inflamed, explains Alan P. Brauer, M.D. This impairs the ability of the tiny hairs that line the bronchial tubes, called the cilia, to sweep mucus and other debris out of your respiratory tract. With your bronchial tubes inflamed...


It is known that in many cases bronchitis has viral causes, so antibiotics are not indicated, but even so, they are prescribed in 60 to 80 percent of cases of acute bronchitis. Studying inappropriate antibiotic use in older patients is an important thing, because previous antibiotic use is a risk factor for antibiotic resistance in subsequent bacterial infections, and also it is known that...


In acute bronchitis the sounds along your upper respiratory ways change so the doctor will examine you with the stethoscope and will detect easily the disease. If you have chronic bronchitis your doctor is supposed to make some specific determinations such as: X-ray of your chest and pulmonary function tests. Treatments Conventional treatment means adopting simple measures such as: stop...


Bronchial tubes, which are the air passages that extend from the windpipe and up to the lungs can become inflamed. That is when bronchitis appears. Bronchitis can be also the inflammation of the bronchi which are located in the chest of human body. There were made some studies, and the result was that millions of persons develop respiratory conditions such as broncitus every year, especially...


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